万人棋牌

我国腐蚀成本及其防控策略

2019/12/20 5:17:10

材料腐蚀是生产生活中的常见现象,严重的腐蚀不仅会造成材料失效,还可能诱发猝不及防的灾难性事故。了解与认识腐蚀问题,是保障人民群众生命财产安全的必然要求。为此,中国工程院针对我国腐蚀成本进行了调查研究。数据表明,2014年,我国腐蚀成本为 21278.2 亿元人民币,约占当年国内生产总值的 3.34%。腐蚀问题可防可控,通过实施防腐蚀顶层设计、加强腐蚀与防护研究、开发新型防腐蚀技术、推行防腐蚀经验标准、提高全民防腐蚀意识等方式,我国腐蚀防护水平将得以全面提升。


材料腐蚀是材料与环境发生化学或电化学反应而产生的材料破坏现象。材料腐蚀是生产生活中的常见现象,严重的腐蚀不仅会造成材料失效,还可能诱发猝不及防的灾难性事故,给人民群众生产生活带来严重影响。了解与认识腐蚀问题,不仅是技术研究的需要,更是保障社会各界生命财产安全的必然要求。



腐蚀防护的重要性


腐蚀防护事关安全。腐蚀造成的危险物质泄露爆炸以及结构建筑断裂垮塌,会给人民带来猝不及防的意外事故,危及群众财产和人身安全。


万人棋牌FUSHIFANGHUSHIGUANJIEYUE。FUSHIHUIJIASUYIJIANCHENGDESHESHIHEZHUANGBEILAOHUATUIYI,SUODUANQISHOUMINGZHOUQI,ERJIANZAOSHESHIZHUANGBEIGUOCHENGZHONGSHIYONGLEDALIANGYUANCAILIAOHENENGYUAN,YINCIFUSHIHUIZAOCHENGJIANJIELANGFEI。FUSHIHUIZAOCHENGSHUIWURAN、DAQIWURAN、TURANGWURANDENGYIXILIEWURANWENTI,SHIZHEIXIEZHENGUIZIYUANGENGJIAXIQUE。


万人棋牌FUSHIFANGHUSHIGUANJINGJI。MEIGEXINGYEDOUSHEJIFUSHIWENTI,FUSHIWENTIDEDAOYOUXIAOKONGZHIHEJIEJUE,DUIQIYETIGAOSHENGCHANXIAOLV、KONGZHIZHENGTICHENGBENJUYOUZHONGYAOZUOYONG。


FUSHIFANGHUSHIGUANMINSHENG。FUSHIZAOCHENGDEYETIPAO、MAO、DI、LOUXIANXIANGHECHANSHENGDEYOUDUYOUHAIWUZHI,HUIYANZHONGYINGXIANGBAIXINGDERICHANGSHENGHUOHESHENTIJIANKANG。


万人棋牌FUSHIFANGHUSHIGUANSHENGTAI。GUOWAIGUANDAOFUSHIPOLIEZAOCHENGDEDALIANGSHIYOUXIELOUSHIGU,YIDUSHIHELIU、HUBOHESHANGBAIGONGQINGTUDISHOUDAOYANZHONGWURAN,DAPIZHIWUKUSI、DONGWUJUEJI。


FUSHIFANGHUSHIGUANJIEYUE。FUSHIHUIJIASUYIJIANCHENGDESHESHIHEZHUANGBEILAOHUATUIYI,SUODUANQISHOUMINGZHOUQI,ERJIANZAOSHESHIZHUANGBEIGUOCHENGZHONGSHIYONGLEDALIANGYUANCAILIAOHENENGYUAN,YINCIFUSHIHUIZAOCHENGJIANJIELANGFEI。


腐蚀成本调查


腐蚀成本调查活动是了解国家、地区或行业腐蚀状况的具体形式。通过腐蚀调查不仅能够了解到该国家、地区或行业特定阶段由腐蚀现象造成的损失程度,也能够洞察造成这些腐蚀问题的深层次原因,从而提出有针对性的防护策略,进而实施必要的防护措施,防控腐蚀带来的危害,降低腐蚀造成的损失。


1

美国腐蚀调查

MEIGUODE UhligKAIZHANLEQUANGUOFUSHICHENGBENZUIZAODEYANJIUGONGZUO,BINGYU 1949 NIANFABIAO“The Cost of Corrosion to TheUnited States”YIWEN,WENZHONGZHICHU,MEIGUODENIANDUFUSHICHENGBENYUEWEI 55 YIMEIYUAN,YUEZHAN1949 NIANGAIGUOGUOMINSHENGCHANZONGZHI(GNP)DE 2.1%。


万人棋牌1999—2001NIAN,MEIGUOCCTechnologiesGONGSILIANHEMEIGUOJIAOTONGBU、GAOSUGONGLUGUANLIJUHEMEIGUOFUSHIGONGCHENGSHIXIEHUI(CEInternational)DUIGAIGUODEFUSHICHENGBENJINXINGLEDIAOCHAYANJIU,ERZHEIYISHIMEIGUOJINXINGDEDIQICIFUSHICHENGBENDIAOCHA。

2

日本腐蚀调查

1976NIAN,RIBENFANGXIUJISHUXIEHUIHEFUSHIFANGSHIXIEHUIZAITONGSHANGCHANYESHENGJIXIEZHENXINGZIJINZIZHUXIA,CHENGLILEYIGANGBENGANGWEIYUANZHANGWEISHOUDEFUSHIDIAOCHAWEIYUANHUI,ZONGHEYIYOUDIAOCHAFANGFADUIDUOGELINGYUJINXINGLEWEIQI 1 NIANDESHENRUDIAOYAN,ZHEISHIRIBENKAIZHANDEDIYICIFUSHIDIAOCHA。DIAOCHABIAOMING,1974NIANRIBENYOUFUSHIZAOCHENGDESUNSHIYUEZHANRIBENDANGNIANGNPDE2%。DANZHEIXIANGYANJIUJINJINPINGGULEFUSHIDEZHIJIECHENGBEN,RUGUOJIANGJIANJIECHENGBENBAOKUOZAINEI,FUSHIDEZHENGTICHENGBENHUIGENGGAO。


万人棋牌1999NIANKAIZHANLEDIERCIFUSHICHENGBENDIAOCHA,GAICIDIAOCHATUISUANDEZHIJIEHEJIANJIEFUSHICHENGBENDADAO9.7 ZHAORIYUAN,ZHANJUGNPDE1.88%。BAOGAOZHICHU,RUGUOJINXINGGENGJIAXIANGXIDEDIAOCHA,TUISUANCHUDEFUSHICHENGBENYIDINGBISHANGSHUSHUZHIGENGDA,SHENZHIKENENGDADAO GNPDE3%—4%。


2016NIAN,RIBENDISANCIFUSHICHENGBENDIAOCHAYEYIQIDONG,XIAOYUANZHENGJIAOSHOURENFUSHIDIAOCHAWEIYUANHUIZHUXI。

3

英国腐蚀调查

1969 NIAN,YINGGUOKAIZHANBAOKUOJIANZHU、SHIPIN、GONGCHENGJIXIE、ZHENGFUBUMEN、HAIYANGPINGTAI、JINSHUYELIANHEJIAGONG、SHIYOUHUAGONG、NENGYUAN、JIAOTONGHESHUIHUANJINGDENGDUOGEXINGYEDEFUSHICHENGBENDIAOCHA,BINGYU 1971 NIANFABIAOLEYINGGUOFUSHIYUFANGHUZHUANGKUANGDIAOCHABAOGAO。JIEGUOBIAOMING,YINGGUONIANFUSHICHENGBENWEI 13.65 YIYINGBANG,ZHANYINGGUO GNP DE 3.5%。

4

国际性腐蚀调查

2013 NIAN 10YUE,MEIGUOFUSHIGONGCHENGSHIXIEHUIQIDONGLEYIXIANGGUOJIXINGDEFUSHIDIAOCHAHUODONG IMPACT。GAIDIAOCHAYOUMEIGUOFUSHIGONGCHENGSHIXIEHUIQIANTOU,BINGYOUNUOWEICHUANJISHE-DEGUOLAOSHICHUANJISHE(DNV GL)HEMEIGUOSHENGCHANXIAOLVYUZHILIANGZHONGXIN(APQC)LIANHEZHONGGUO、JIANADA、YINDUDENGDUOGEGUOJIADEQIYEHEKEYANJIGOUGONGTONGWANCHENG。2014 NIAN,IMPACT XIANGMUJINGLIYIXINGLAIZHONGGUOJINXINGLEDALIANGDIAOYAN,ZUIZHONGQUERENYOUZHONGGUOGONGCHENGYUANYUANSHI、ZHONGGUOKEXUEYUANHAIYANGYANJIUSUOYANJIUYUANHOUBAORONGDANRENQUANQIUFUSHIDIAOCHAZHONGGUOQUZHUXI。

5

中国腐蚀调查

万人棋牌WOGUODEFUSHIDIAOCHAGONGZUOQIBUXIANGDUIJIAOWAN。1980NIAN7YUE,YUANGUOJIAKEWEIFUSHIXUEKEZUXIANGHUAXUEGONGYE、LIANYOUGONGYE、YEJINGONGYE、HUAXIANGONGYEDENG7GEBUMENFAFANGLE《FUSHIGUANLIYUFUSHISUNSHIDIAOCHABIAO》,BINGJINXINGLESHIDIKAOCHAHEDIAOYAN。


1986 NIAN,YOUWUHANCAILIAOBAOHUYANJIUSUOFUZEDUIWOGUOJIXIEGONGYEDEFUSHICHENGBENJINXINGLEDIAOCHA。1999 NIAN,GENJUKEWEIYUANSHIHECAOCHUNANYUANSHIJIANYI,ZHONGGUOGONGCHENGYUANJINXINGLE“ZHONGGUOGONGYEYUZIRANHUANJINGFUSHIWENTIDIAOCHAYUDUICE”XIANGMUYANJIU。


2015NIAN,ZHONGGUOGONGCHENGYUANSHELILE“WOGUOFUSHIZHUANGKUANGJIKONGZHIZHANLVEYANJIU”ZHONGDAZIXUNXIANGMU。GAIXIANGMUYOUZHONGGUOKEXUEYUANHAIYANGYANJIUSUOQIANTOU,LIANHEZHONGGUOFUSHIYUFANGHUXUEHUI、BEIJINGKEJIDAXUE、BEIJINGHANGKONGHANGTIANDAXUE、NANJINGSHUILIKEXUEYANJIUYUAN、ZHONGGUORENMINJIEFANGJUNLUJUNZHUANGJIABINGXUEYUANGONGTONGKAIZHANQUANGUOXINGDEFUSHIDIAOCHA。


腐蚀调查方法


国际通用的腐蚀成本调查方法有 Uhlig法、Hoar法和 Battelle法。


1

Uhlig法

万人棋牌UhligFASHIJIANGSHENGCHAN、ZHIZAO、YANGHU、WEIXIUFANGMIANDEFANGFUSHICUOSHISUOXUFEIYONGZHIJIELEIJIA。。ZHEIXIEFANGFUSHICUOSHIBAOKUOTULIAOYUTUZHUANG、BIAOMIANCHULI、NAISHICAILIAO、FANGXIUYOU、HUANSHIJI、DIANHUAXUEBAOHU、FUSHIYANJIUHEFUSHIJIANCEDENG。


万人棋牌Uhlig法通过总结防腐蚀材料、技术和相关服务所需成本得出整体腐蚀成本。防腐蚀材料成本可从政府部门、贸易组织、行业协会和企业单位等多种渠道获得。通过公开资料查阅、专家学者咨询、组织机构调研等方式获取防腐蚀技术和服务成本数据。

2

Hoar法

HoarFAKAOCHATONGJIGEXINGYEDEFUSHICHENGBENHEFANGSHIFEIYONG,JIERJINXINGLEIJIAZONGHE。CAIYONGHANDIAO、ZHUANJIAZIXUN、SHIDIDIAOYANDENGDUOZHONGFANGSHIHUODEKEKAOSHUJU,LIYONGSHUXUETONGJIFANGFATUISUANXINGYEFUSHICHENGBEN,RANHOUGENJUSUODESHUJUTUISUANGUOJIAZHENGTIFUSHICHENGBEN。

3

Battelle法

Battelle法是用投入/产出矩阵(企业生产关联表)统计得出国民经济各部门相关腐蚀费用,然后计算腐蚀成
本。该方法提出了 3 种“世界”:
世界Ⅰ——存在腐蚀的真实世界;
世界Ⅱ——没有腐蚀的假想世界;
世界Ⅲ——假想的能够通过充分实践有效防腐的世界。


万人棋牌投入/产出模型被用于描述这 3 种“世界”。然后,这项研究将整体腐蚀成本确定为世界Ⅰ与世界Ⅱ间的差异。并进一步将整体腐蚀成本划分为可避免和不可避免两部分。



腐蚀调查结果


万人棋牌UhligFADIAOYANJIEGUOBIAOMING,2014NIANZHONGGUOZHIJIEFUSHICHENGBENZONGJIYUE10639.1YIYUANRENMINBI。ZHIJIEFUSHICHENGBENZHONG,FANGFUTULIAOZHANBIZUIDA,QICIWEIFANGFUCAILIAOHEBIAOMIANCHULIFEIYONG。ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,YOUYUNANYIHUODEFUSHIJIANJIANCEXINGYEQUEQIESHUJUDENGYUANYIN,FUSHIJIANJIANCECHENGBENWEIJISUANZAINEI。CANKAOGUONEIWAIFUSHIDIAOCHAJINGYAN,JIANJIEFUSHICHENGBENBAOHANFUSHIYOUFADECHANLIANGXIAJIANG、XINYUJIANGDI、HUANJINGWURAN、SHENGTAIPOHUAI、RENYUANSHANGWANGDENGYINSUDAOZHIDECHENGBEN,JIANJIEFUSHICHENGBENYIBANSHIZHIJIEFUSHICHENGBENDE1ZHISHUBEI。BAOSHOUGUSUAN,JIANJIEFUSHICHENGBENYUZHIJIEFUSHICHENGBENXIANGTONG。ZHEIYANG,CAIYONG Uhlig FAJISUANDE2014NIANZHONGGUOFUSHIZONGCHENGBENWEI21278.2YIYUANRENMINBI,ZHAN 2014NIANZHONGGUOGUONEISHENGCHANZONGZHI(GDP)DE3.34%,JIMEIWEIZHONGGUOGONGMINDANGNIANXUCHENGDANYUE1555YUANRENMINBIDEFUSHICHENGBEN。


关于进一步提升我国腐蚀防护水平的建议


腐蚀防护科学是研究和保护人类文明赖以存在和发展的物质基础,即研究和保护各类材料、设备、设施的一门关键科学。但由于腐蚀防护是跨行业、跨部门、共性的,且不直接创造经济效益,它的被关注程度较低。


然而,腐蚀防护安全关系到国家经济健康发展和国防建设长治久安,具有重要的战略意义和现实意义。因此,必须全面提升我国腐蚀防护水平保障社会生产生活安全。


1

推进防腐蚀工作顶层设计,加强腐蚀防护管理

MUQIAN,QUEFAZHUANMENJIGOUJIRENYUANFUZEWOGUOFUSHIFANGHUGONGZUODEZHANLVEZHIDAOHEZONGTIGUIHUA。JIANYUFUSHIFANGHULINGYUZHONGYAOXINGJIQIKUAXINGYE、KUABUMENDETEDIAN,KEYOUKEXUEJISHUBUQIANTOU,ZUZHIGUOJIAFAZHANHEGAIGEWEIYUANHUI、GONGYEHEXINXIHUABU、GUOJIASHICHANGJIANDUGUANLIZONGJUDENGXIANGGUANBUMENGONGTONGCHENGLIFUSHIFANGHULINGDAOXIAOZUHECHANGSHEJIGOU,JIAQIANGWOGUOFUSHIFANGHUGONGZUODINGCENGGUIHUA、SHEJI、XIEDIAO、GUANLI,CUJINWOGUOFUSHIFANGHUSHUIPINGWENBUTISHENG。

2

设立科技专项,加大腐蚀防护技术研究,推动我国腐蚀防护技术创新发展

FUSHIFANGHUSHIGUOMINJINGJIGEXINGYEMIANLINDEGONGXINGKEXUEWENTI,YINGWEIRAOWOGUOJICHUSHESHIHEZHUANGBEIFUSHIFANGHUZHONGDAKEJIWENTIJIZHONGDAGONGCHENGXUQIU,ZAIFUSHIGUILV、NAISHIJIZHI、SHUZHIMONI、ZHUANYONGSHEBEI、FUSHIDASHUJU、ANQUANJIANJIANCE、FANGFUXINCAILIAO、ZHANGXIAOFANGFUJISHU、ANQUANGUANLITIXIDENGFANGMIANCHONGFENRENZHIFUSHIPOHUAIGUILV,TUPOFUSHIFANGHUANQUANLINGYUNANDIANHEXINJISHU、GUANJIANGONGXINGJISHUHEZHUANYONGFANGHUJISHU,TUIDONGGEXINGYESHESHIYUZHUANGBEIANQUANYANSHOU。

3

尽快建立健全腐蚀防护安全相关法律法规及标准体系

JIANLIJIANQUANFUSHIFANGHUFALVFAGUIJIXIANGGUANANQUANBIAOZHUNTIXI,QIANGHUAFUSHIFANGHUANQUANGUANLIHEJIANGUANLIDU。CUSHIQISHIYEDANWEIZAIGONGCHENGSHEJI、XUANCAI、JIANSHE、YUNXING、WEIHUDENGGEJIEDUAN,CAIQUZHENDUIXINGFUSHIFANGHUBIAOZHUN,BAOZHANGGONGCHENGZHANGJIUANQUAN。

4

加大先进腐蚀防护技术的融合、示范、推广和应用

JINGGUODUONIANDEFAZHAN,WOGUOZAIFUSHIFANGHULINGYUYIJIANLILEYIPIYANJIUHEYINGYONGKAIFADUIWU,YANFALEYIPIJUYOUGUOJILINGXIANSHUIPINGDEJISHU。YINGWEIRAOWOGUOJICHUSHESHIHEZHONGDAZHUANGBEIJIANSHEFAZHAN,TUIDONGXIANJINFUSHIFANGHUANQUANJISHUZAIXINJIANHEZAIYISHESHIZHUANGBEISHANGDESHIFAN、TUIGUANGHEYINGYONG,TUIDONG“ZHONGGUOZHIZAO”YOULIANGXIANGZHIDEKUAYUE。

5

加强教育和科普宣传,提高全民腐蚀防护意识

CICIFUSHIDIAOCHAJIEGUOBIAOMING,GEXINGYEKAIZHANFUSHIFANGHUGONGZUODEZUIDAKUNNANSHIFUSHIFANGHUZHUANYERENCAIDEQUEFA。YINCI,FUSHIFANGHUANQUANGUOJIAZHANLVECHULEXUYAOZAIXIANJINFUSHIFANGHUJISHUYANJIU、FUSHIANQUANFAGUIHEFUSHIANQUANGUANLISHANGJIADALIDUWAI,GENGXUYAOZAIFUSHIJIAOYUYUKEPUDENGFANGMIANDALIKAIZHANGONGZUO。


YINGTONGGUOGONGGONGMEITIXUANCHUAN、SHEHUIGONGYIHUODONGDENGDUOZHONGTUJING,FENGFUJIAQIANGPUTONGMINZHONGDEFUSHIFANGHUZHISHIHEQUANSHOUMINGZHOUQICHENGBENYISHI,RANGGONGZHONG、ZHENGFUBUMEN、QIYEJIA、QINGNIANXUESHENGDENGGELEIQUNTIRENSHIDAOFUSHIWEIHAIHEFANGFUDEZHONGYAOXING。



结语


腐蚀问题是客观存在的,但这并不意味着可以不重视腐蚀问题。腐蚀问题造成材料破坏,带来突发性灾难事故,造成难以挽回的重大损失。腐蚀问题可防可控,通过深入认识腐蚀规律,掌握腐蚀防护技术,推行防腐蚀设计管理,加强防腐蚀意识理念,就可以缓解腐蚀问题,提升设施装备安全性。


LAIYUAN:SHEBEIGUANLIYUFANGFU


文本标签:腐蚀,长输管道,啄木鸟检测

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