万人棋牌

薄壁钢部件相控阵检测国际标准14大方面全解读

2019/11/1 2:35:16

目前ISO相控阵焊缝检测共有3个相关标准:

01

ISO 13588:2019《焊缝无损检测-超声检测-使用自动相控阵技术》是一个焊缝相控阵检测的方法标准,适用于半自动或全自动相控阵超声检测最小壁厚为6 mm的金属焊接接头,该标准为第二版,是在2012年第一版基础上进行的技术修订。

02

ISO 19285:2017《焊缝无损检测-超声相控阵检测-验收等级》是一个焊缝相控阵检测的验收标准,规定了最小壁厚为6 mm的铁素体钢全熔透焊缝的相控阵超声检测验收等级,这些验收等级可应用于根据ISO 13588:2019进行分类指示的验收。

03

DUIYUGUOLUGUANDAOJICHANGJIANDEXIAOJINGGUAN,DIANXINGDEBIHOUQUZHIFANWEIWEI3.2~8 mm,BIHOUWEI6 mmYIXIADEGUANDAOHANFENGWUFAANZHAOISO 13588:2019JINXINGJIANCE。YINCIISOYU2018NIANZHIDINGBINGBANBULEISO 20601:2018《HANFENGWUSUNJIANCE-CHAOSHENGJIANCE-SHIYONGZIDONGXIANGKONGZHENJISHUJIANCEBOBIGANGBUJIAN》,GUIDINGLEBIHOUFANWEIWEI3.2~8 mmDEGANGBUJIANJINSHURONGHUAHANJIETOUDEBANZIDONGHUOQUANZIDONGXIANGKONGZHENCHAOSHENGJIANCEDEYINGYONG。DANGDUIBIHOUFANWEIWEI6~8 mmZHIJIANDEHANFENGJINXINGXIANGKONGZHENJIANCEQIAN,YINGZAICHANPINJISHUGUIFANZHONGGUIDINGSUOSHIYONGDEJIANCEFANGFABIAOZHUNHEDENGJI。


1

ISO 20601:2018解读

01

适用范围

CIBIAOZHUNGUIDINGLESHIYONGBANZIDONGHUOQUANZIDONGXIANGKONGZHENCHAOSHENGJISHUJIANCEBIHOUWEI3.2~8 mmDEGANGBUJIANRONGHANHANJIEJIETOUDEYINGYONGFANGFA。RUGUOBIHOUFANWEICHAOCHUZUIXIAOZHIHUOZUIDAZHIDEYAOQIU,YINGDANGCAIYONGCIBIAOZHUNZHONGDEJIANCEDENGJIDJI。


虽然此标准的板厚范围主要是基于锅炉管道典型壁厚的取值范围,但其适用范围不局限于此。ISO 20601:2018标准适用于母材和焊缝材料都是低合金或细晶粒钢的板、管和容器的简单几何形状全熔透焊接接头。超声参数与工件材料相关,此标准中的超声参数是基于纵波声速范围为(5920±50) m/s,横波声速范围为(3255±30) m/s的钢材料。声速不同会导致折射角和回波反射率不同,当检测声速不同的材料时,应考虑该因素。


此标准提供了对熔焊接头进行相控阵检测时,在检测、定位、定量和不连续表征方面的特定能力及局限性的指导;描述了用于验收目的的缺欠评估,包括位置、长度、高度和缺欠类型。但标准中未包含缺欠的验收等级,因此在检测前,各相关方需要明确缺欠的评估方法并制定验收标准。

02

检测等级

HANJIEJIETOUDEZHILIANGYAOQIUZHUYAOYUCAILIAO、HANJIEGONGYIHEFUWUTIAOJIANXIANGGUAN。WEILESHIYINGZHEIXIEYAOQIU,BIAOZHUNGUIDINGLELIANGGEJIANCEDENGJI(CJIHEDJI)。DUIYUZHEILIANGGEJIANCEDENGJI,DOUQIANGZHIXINGYAOQIUBIANZHISHUMIANJIANCEGUICHENG。


检测等级C级适用于薄壁部件的标准化检测方法,如从焊缝两侧进行检测或将焊缝磨平后从一侧进行检测。当采用检测等级C级时,可不在演示试块上进行验证。


检测等级D级适用于经协商同意的特殊应用,如检测壁厚小于3.2 mm时,壁厚改变、检测温度超出0°~50°范围时。当采用检测等级D级时,应在演示试块上进行验证。


通常情况下,检测等级与质量等级相关。适宜的检测等级可在焊缝检测标准(如ISO 17635:2016《焊缝无损检测——金属材料通用规则》)、产品标准或其他规范中指定。当指定采用ISO 17635:2016时,推荐的检测等级在表1中给出。

BIAO2JICHULEJIANCEDENGJICJIHEDJICAIYONGDANGEJIANCEMOSHISHIDEZUIDIYAOQIU(RUGUOGUIFANYAOQIUJIANCEHENGXIANGQUEQIAN,YINGSHIDANGZENGJIAFUJIAJIANCESHEZHI,KECAIYONGTANTOUNIUZHUANHUODIANZINIUZHUANBOSHUSAOMIAO)。JIANCESHEZHIXUYAOSHIYONGCANKAOSHIKUAIHUOYANSHISHIKUAIJINXINGYANZHENG。RUGUOJINKECONGDANMIAN(RURONGQIDEWAIBIAOMIAN,XIAOJINGGUANWAIBIAOMIAN)SAOCHA,ZHISHAOYINGCAIYONGBANKUAJUHEQUANKUAJUJINXINGJIANCE。RUGUOKECONGSHUANGMIAN(RUDINGBUBIAOMIANHEDIBUBIAOMIAN)JINXINGSAOCHA,KEYIZHISHIYONGBANKUAJU。

RUGUOPINGGUQUEQIANSHIJINJIYUBOFU,ZAISHEZHISHI,BOSHUZHOUPIANLIHANFENGPOKOUCHUIXIANDEJIAODUYINGBUCHAOGUO6°。RUGUOYINBEICEGONGJIANDEJIHECHICUN(RUHANFENGGAIMIAN,ZHAIJIANXIHANFENG)DAOZHIPIANLIJIAODUCHAOCHU6°,YINGZAISAOCHAJIHUAZHONGMIAOSHUCELIANGXIUZHENGGUOCHENG,BINGCHANSHUZENYANGBAOZHENG6°YIWAIDEQUYUYOUZUGOUDELINGMINDUFUGAI。

03

书面检测规程

SUOYOUDEJIANCEDENGJIDOUYAOQIUYOUSHUMIANJIANCEGUICHENG。SHUMIANJIANCEGUICHENGYINGZHISHAOBAOHANYIXIAXINXI:JIANCEMUDEHEFANWEI、JIANCEJISHU、JIANCEDENGJI、RENYUANZIGEJIANDING,PEIXUNYAOQIU、SUOYONGDEJIANCESHEBEI(BAOKUOPINLV、CAIYANGLV、ZHENYUANJIANJU、ZHENYUANCHICUN)、CANKAOHUOYANSHISHIKUAI、XIAOZHUNHECANKAOSAOCHASHILI、JIANCESHEBEIDELINGMINDUHEFANWEISHEZHI、KEJIEJINXINGHEJIANCEBIAOMIANTIAOJIAN、MUCAIJIANCE、ZHISHIDEPINGGU、YANSHOUDENGJIHUOJILUDENGJI、BAOGAOYAOQIU、HUANJINGANQUANSHIYIYIJISAOCHAJIHUADENG。SAOCHAJIHUAYINGXIANSHITANTOUDEWEIZHI、TANTOUDEYIDONGFANGSHIHEGONGJIANDEFUGAI,YITIGONGYIGEBIAOZHUNHUADE、KEZHONGFUDEHANFENGJIANCEFANGFA。SAOCHAJIHUAHAIYINGBAOKUOHANFENGDEHOUDUHEJIHEXINGZHUANG,SHIYONGDEBOSHUJIAODUXIANGDUIYUHANFENGZHONGXINXIANDEBOSHUFANGXIANG,YIJIMEITIAOHANFENGDEJIANCEQUYU。

04

检测设备及配件

万人棋牌CIBIAOZHUNZHONGMEIYOUJICHUJIANCESHEBEIJIPEIJIANDEJUTICANSHUYAOQIU,ZHISHITICHUYONGYUXIANGKONGZHENJIANCEDECHAOSHENGBOSHEBEIYINGFUHEISO 18563:2017《WUSUNJIANCE-CHAOSHENGXIANGKONGZHENSHEBEIDETEXINGHEYANZHENG》DEYAOQIU。


探头可以使用纵波、横波和爬波,探头的频率最少应为5 MHz,频率应与工件厚度相匹配。工件较厚时选用低频探头。


当检测弯曲表面时,探头与曲面的匹配应符合ISO 17640:2017《焊缝无损检测-超声检测-技术检测等级与评定》的要求。探头应配备有探头靴,探头靴应能有效匹配检测面的曲率,探头靴底部与检测弯曲表面的间隙应不大于0.5 mm。


因工件曲率对声束有影响,沿着焊缝方向的波束宽度应合适(例如:使用几何或电子波束聚焦),以便根据指定的验收标准来测定不连续的长度。


为了实现相控阵成像(数据采集)的一致性,应使用导向装置和扫查编码器。探头和焊缝中心线的距离应保持恒定,最大允许误差为±1 mm。否则,应在参考试块上验证其适用性。

05

检测前准备

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其次是扫查表面的准备。应清理足够宽度的扫查表面,以确保完全覆盖被检测区域。扫查面应平整,应无影响探头耦合的外来物(如锈蚀、松散氧化皮、飞溅、缺口、沟槽等)。检测表面的条件应保证探头和测试工件的表面间隙不得超过0.5 mm。必要时,应通过修磨扫查表面来保证要求的满足。机加工工件的表面粗糙度Ra不应超过6.3 μm,喷丸表面粗糙度Ra不应超过12.5 μm。当有涂层(如油漆等)且不能移除时,演示试块需带有相应的涂层,同时应指定和使用相应的修正措施。测试工件的表面温度应在0°~50°之间。如果测试工件的表面温度在该范围之外,应当使用特殊的高温相控阵探头和耦合剂,并验证仪器的适用性。


耦合剂在探头和测试工件之间提供稳定的超声传输。校准时使用的耦合剂应与后续检测过程中及检测后校准的耦合剂相同。

06

母材检测

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07

范围和灵敏度设置

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(1)

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(2)

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(3)

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08

参考试块

检测等级C级和D级应使用参考试块,用来设置灵敏度及确认检测的完整性(如:覆盖)。推荐采用如图1和图2所示的参考试块。图1中R是与被测工件曲率接近的参考试块曲率(对于工件直径D>600 mm,试块的顶部可以采用平面),如考虑到超声声程和灵敏度的修正,给定的参考试块可覆盖到其自身曲率70%~100%的工件曲率范围。


图1中的试块优先用于时间延迟和TCG的设置及修正,也可用于制作DAC或TCG,以及复核时间延迟(相对于探头靴磨损)和入射点。

图1 典型的横孔参考试块结构示意


对于灵敏度设置,推荐使用如图2所示的环焊缝参考试块(图中,Dr为参考试块的直径;tr为参考试块的厚度;l1为横孔的长度;l2为刻槽的长度)。这种试块用于复核探头的偏置、复核检测区域、调整范围和检测灵敏度、复核设置以及进行传输修正等。试块的长度≥150 mm,厚度范围为0.8tr~1.2tr,直径D的范围为0.8Dr~1.2Dr。如果没有其他反射体或管末端的回波干扰,反射体可加工在一根完整的管子上或管子的一部分上。作为一种选择,可使用沿焊缝坡口朝向的平底孔(直径为0.6 mm)。

图2 典型环焊缝参考试块结构示意


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09

检测等级D级用演示试块

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演示试块应包含在真实焊缝内或焊缝处的反射体,这些反射体应能代表可能产生的缺陷。可用的两种反射体类型为:真实不连续(人为设计、焊接形成的缺陷)和人工不连续(机加工反射体,如槽、横孔和平底孔)。通常优先选用真实的不连续,或者也可使用人工不连续。不连续的类型和所需数量应得到合同双方的认可。

10

检测规程验证

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11

焊缝检测

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沿着焊缝方向的扫查步进不应超过0.5 mm。检测等级D级可以指定其他扫查步进,但需要证明所设的扫查步进是合理的。横向缺欠检测时,为确保被检测区域的覆盖,应选择垂直于焊缝方向的扫查步进。


在初始扫查时,检测到的一些指示可能需要附加评估,如偏置扫查和垂直于不连续扫查,应补充相控阵扫查设置。


选择的扫查速度应能产生令人满意的图像。扫查速度选择取决于许多因素,如延迟法则数量、扫查分辨率、脉冲重复频率、数据采样率和被检测区域等。扫查线的缺失意味着所用的扫查速度过高。在单次扫查过程中,最多允许总扫查线的5%缺失,但不允许相邻扫查线缺失。


当焊缝总长度范围内分为多个部分扫查时,在相邻扫查之间至少需要20 mm的重叠。当扫查环焊缝时,第一次扫查的始端和最后一次扫查的末端需要同样的重叠。


必要时,进行耦合效果监控。

12

数据存储

万人棋牌YINGSHIYONGJIYUZIDONGJISUANJISHUJUCAIJIDEZHUANGZHILAIJINXINGCHAOSHENGBOJIANCE。SUOYOUFUGAIJIANCHAQUYUDEASAOSHUJUYINGCUNCHU,SUOYOUSHUJUSHEZHIJISHEZHICANSHUYINGBAOHANZAISHUJUJILUZHONG。SUOYOUSHUJUDOUBIXUZAIZHIDINGDESHIJIANNEICUNCHU。

13

相控阵数据的解释和分析

万人棋牌DIANXINGDEXIANGKONGZHENSHUJUJIESHIHEFENXIKEANRUXIAYAOQIUJINXING:PINGGUXIANGKONGZHENSHUJUDEZHILIANG、SHIBIEXIANGGUANZHISHI、ANZHAOGUIDINGDUIXIANGGUANBULIANXUFENLEI、GENJUGUIDINGQUEDINGBULIANXUWEIZHIHEDAXIAOYIJIANZHAOYANSHOUBIAOZHUNPINGGUBULIANXU。

01

评估相控阵数据的质量

万人棋牌XIANGKONGZHENJIANCEYINGCHANSHENGLINGRENMANYIDETUXIANG,YIBIANJINXINGGENGJIAKEKAODEPINGGU。KETONGGUOOUHE、FANWEI(SHIJI)SHEZHI、LINGMINDUSHEZHI、XINZAOBI、BAOHEZHISHIHECAIJIDESHUJULAIPINGGU。XIANGKONGZHENCHENGXIANGZHILIANGDEPINGGUXUYAOYOUJINENGHEJINGYANDECAOZUORENYUAN,CAOZUORENYUANYINGNENGQUEDINGBUMANYIDECHENGXIANGSHIFOUXUYAOZHONGXINJINXINGSHUJUCAIJI(ZHONGXINSAOCHA)。

02

相关指示的识别

万人棋牌XIANGKONGZHENCHENGXIANGBAOKUOLEHANFENGZHONGDEBULIANXUHEBEICEGONGJIANDEJIHETEZHENG,WEILEQUBIEZHISHIHEJIHETEZHENG,XUYAOLEJIEBEICEGONGJIANDEJUTIXINXI。WEILEQUEDINGYIGEZHISHISHIFOUSHIXIANGGUANZHISHI(YOUHANFENGZHONGBULIANXUDAOZHI),YINGKAOLVFANSHETIDEXINGZHUANG、XIANGDUIYUZAOSHENGSHUIPINGDEXINHAOBOFU,BINGPINGGUXIANGKONGZHENCHENGXIANGDEMOSHIHUORAODONGQINGKUANG。

03

相关指示的分类

万人棋牌XIANGGUANZHISHIDEBOFU、WEIZHIHEMOSHIBAOHANLEXIANGGUANBULIANXULEIXINGDEXINXI。XIANGGUANZHISHIYINGANZHAOGUIDINGJINXINGFENLEI。

04

指示的位置和长度确定

应通过采集的数据确定不连续是平行于焊缝轴线、垂直于焊缝轴线,还是焊缝厚度方向上的位置。不连续的长度定义为沿着焊缝的尺寸。测长法应按照应用的验收等级执行。当检测小径管的环焊缝时,沿外表面测量的长度要比实际的不连续长度长,尤其是较深的深度(如根部不连续),可使用下式进行修正:

lc=l×(OD-2d)/OD

式中:lc为修正后的长度;ls为沿表面测量的长度;OD为外径;d为指示深度。

05

指示的评估

DANGZHISHIGAODUKEBEIZHIJIECELIANGSHI,RULIYONGYANSHEXINHAO,DANGWEISHOUXUAN。RUWUYANSHEXINHAOCUNZAIHUOKEYONGSHI,ZESHIYONGBOFUJINXINGPINGGU。


(1) 基于波幅和长度的评估。波幅降低法可用于指示高度和长度的确定,对每个特定指示信号的最大波幅应根据规定的此类指示的验收等级进行评估。


(2) 基于高度和长度的评估。指示的高度是指示在壁厚方向的尺寸,对于长度方向上高度不同的指示,其高度应为指示长度范围内,高度分离最大时的扫查位置。如果要求更高精度,可使用重建算法。


(3) 不连续的表征。指示的回波模式、位置和方向可用于确定相关不连续的类型。

06

基于验收标准的评定

所有相关指示分类、确定其位置和长度并进行评估后,按照规定的验收标准进行评定。指示可分为“接受”或“不可接受”。

14

检测报告

JIANCEBAOGAODENEIRONGZHISHAOBAOHANYIXIAXINXI:DUIISO 20601:2018DEYINYONG;BEICEGONGJIANDEXIANGGUANXINXI;JIANCESHEBEIXIANGGUANXINXI;JIANCEJISHUXIANGGUANXINXI;XIANGKONGZHENSHEZHIDEXIANGGUANXINXI;JIANCEJIEGUOXIANGGUANXINXI。

2

结 语

ISO 20601:2018WEIBOBIGANGBUJIANXIANGKONGZHENJIANCETIGONGLEYIJU,WEIJIANCEJIEGUODEZHENGQUEXINGPINGDINGDIANDINGLEJICHU。SHIYONGSHIYINGZHUYI,CIBIAOZHUNWEIJIANCEFANGFABIAOZHUN,MEIYOUGUIDINGJIANCEJIEGUODEYANSHOU。JIANCEKAISHIQIAN,YINGZAICHANPINJISHUGUIFANZHONG,XIESHANGGUIDINGYANSHOUBIAOZHUN。

ZUOZHE:JINLEI

(工程师,在烟台中集来福士海洋工程有限公司要从事无损检测应用工作。)

万人棋牌LAIYUAN:《WUSUNJIANCE》2019NIAN9QI


文本标签:相控阵,焊缝,检测,啄木鸟检测

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