万人棋牌

压力容器腐蚀现象及防范对策

2019/9/20 9:54:28

      

       FUSHISHUYUJINSHUWULIAOHEZHOUBIANHUANJINGCHUXIANZIRANFANYINGSUOYINQIDESUNHAI,HUIZAOCHENGWULIAOMOSUN、LIUTIWAIXIEDENG,FUSHIDEWEIHAIXINGHENDA,ZIJINCHENGBENHAOFEILIANGWUFAGUJI,TEBIESHIYANSHENGDEANQUANFENGXIAN,WEIHAIYUANGONGSHENGMINGANQUAN,SUOYI,FANGFUGONGZUOKEBURONGHUAN。BENWENJIESHAOLEYALIRONGQICHUXIANFUSHIDEZHUYAOYINSU,JIEZHEXIANGXIJIESHAOLEYOUXIAODEFANGFANDUICE。

       压力容器是装载液体和气体并承担较大压力的密闭性设备,或内部有可形成压力的流体,以及受外压的设备等。腐蚀、开裂、破损、冲蚀以及物理受损等都是压力容器最明显的失效形式。压力容器以及附件等常常由于物料的腐蚀、劣化、改变、开裂等原因出现重大灾害事故,大部分是因为腐蚀引发的。一个构造完整的压力容器,常由于使用过程忽略腐蚀问题而造成应用期限下降或损坏失效,引起安全事故,在具体操作中一定要深刻认识,采用科学的策略进行预防。


      压力容器出现腐蚀的主要影响要素


      1.外部环境原因

      YALIRONGQIDENEIWAIHUANJINGJIANGHUIZHIJIEYINGXIANGDAOQIFANGFUXINGNENG。YALIRONGQICHENGZAIDESHIJILEIXINGJIAODUO,SUOHANWUZHICHENGBENHENDUO,BUKEBIMIANDEHUIHUNZASHAOLIANGFUSHIXINGCAILIAO,BIRUSUANXINGCAILIAO、JIANXINGCAILIAODENG,ZHEIXIECHENGFENJUNJIKENENGHUIDAOZHIYALIRONGQICHUXIANFUSHIXIANXIANG。

      外部环境原因对压力容器造成腐蚀影响形式是多种多样的,其一,压力容器在应用时出现了腐蚀情况,内压的升高会起到明显的催化作用,加快腐蚀反应,进而恶化腐蚀问题。其二,压力容器当中温度会加快反应速度,温度上升,离子流动迅速,内部温度每上升10℃,化学反应速率便加快2倍~3倍。其三,内部酸碱环境将催化腐蚀反应速度,酸碱环境不一样,内部具有的离子含量也将不一样。


      2.物料特性因素

万人棋牌      YALIRONGQIWULIAOTEXINGJIDAYINGXIANGBINGJUEDINGZHEYALIRONGQIDEKANGFUSHUIPING。DIYI,FUSHISUDUJIANGSHOUDAOBIAOMIANJINSHUWUJINGTIGOUZAOMIDUHEYANGHUAXINGGANRAO,JINGTIGOUZAOMIDUYUDA,BIAOMIANYUCUCAO,JINGTIKONGFENGJIUYUEDA,FUWUWUZHIJIUGENGYISHENRU,YUERONGYICHUXIANFUSHIFANYING。DIER,ZAILIYONGYALIRONGQISHI,RUGUONEIRONGTIANJIADEYALITAIDAHENEIBUDUANSHAODENGXIANXIANG,CISHINEIBUYALIHENQIANG,JUNYOUKENENGHUIDAOZHIYALIRONGQICHUXIANBIANHUA,JINERYINQIFUSHIFANYING,RUGUOCISHINEIBUCHUXIANH2S,ZERONGQIJIKENENGHUICHUXIANFUSHIXINGSUNHUAI。DISAN,RUGUOYALIRONGQIWULIAOCHENGFENZALUAN,JIANGHUIJIAKUAIDIANHUAXUEFUSHIFANYINGSUDU。ZAICHENGFENZALUANDEYALIRONGQINEI,JIYIFUHEYUANDIANCHIFANYINGYAODU,RUGUONEIBUCHUXIANDUOXINGCAILIAO,NEIMEJIUHUIJIAKUAIJINSHUFUSHISULV。


     压力容器腐蚀现象的防范对策

万人棋牌      ZAIYANJIUYALIRONGQIFUSHIXIANXIANGSHI,QIZHUYAOYUANYINBAOKUOKEGUANYINSUHEZHUGUANYINSU,RUKEYOUXIAOCHULIZHEIYIWENTI,BIMIANFUSHIDECHUXIAN,JIUYAOQIUZHANZAISHIFENZHUANYEDEGAODUQUXUNQIUCELVE,JINLIANGJIANXIAOFUSHISULV,JINERTIGAOYALIRONGQIYINGYONGDEANQUANCHENGDUHEYINGYONGQIXIAN。


      1.完善外部环境

      WANSHANWAIBUHUANJING,KEYIHENHAOFANGZHIYALIRONGQICHUXIANFUSHIXIANXIANG。WANSHANWAIBUHUANJINGZHUYAOSHEJILIANGCENGHANYI:YIFANGMIAN,JINKENENGFANGZHISHIRONGQIZAIGAOWEN、SHIDUDADENGGONGZUOHUANJINGXIAYINGYONG;LINGYIFANGMIAN,NENGGOUCAIQUDIANDUFANGFAHEZAIJIEZHINEITIANJIAHUANSHIJIDENGYOUHUACAILIAOZISHENDESHIYONGHUANJING。DIANDUFANGFAZHUYAOZHICAIYONGDIANJIEYUANLIZAIDAODIANTISHANGSHEZHIYICENGNENGTIGAOJINSHUCAILIAOFANGYANGHUAXINGNENGDEJINSHU,CAIYONGDIANDUFANGFANENGYOUXIAOFANGZHIYINGLIFUSHI。

     

      2.添加并选用合适的缓蚀剂

万人棋牌      RONGQIJINSHUWAIBIAOJIASHANGSHILIANGDEHUANSHIJIKEYIYOUXIAOTISHENGQIFANGFUSHUIPING,JIANXIAOFUSHISUDU。TIANJIAHUANSHIJIDECHENGBENXIANGJIAOYUQITAFANGFUGONGYIERYANXIAOFEIPIANDI、XIAOGUOMINGXIAN,YOUQISHIZHENDUIKONGZHIHUAXUEFUSHIYUDIANHUAXUEFANYINGFUSHILAIJIANG,QIDAOLEZHENDUIXINGCHENGXIAO。

      缓蚀剂主要分为吸附膜类别和氧化膜类别、沉淀膜类别。吸附膜类别的缓蚀剂可以提高压力容器外表金属物防腐水平,属于一种有机物;氧化膜类别的缓蚀剂自身便是氧化剂,能够和试剂内的还原性物质出现氧化还原反应,衍生出的物质将附着于内部产生一层保护膜,降低腐蚀速度。


      3.注重并根据实际选用材料

      XUANQUYALIRONGQICAILIAOSHIKECONGGENYUANCHUJIANGDIRONGQIDEFUSHI,YAOJIEHEYINGYONGZHUANGKUANGJIGEXIANGBIAOZHUNLAIXUANYONGYALIRONGQIDEWULIAO。

      其一,在考虑材料抗腐性能的基础上,也要兼顾到材料的抗高温、抗高压等水平,进而减小物理腐蚀出现的概率;

      QIER,JIEHESHIJIQINGKUANGYUZHANGXUCHENGZAIDERONGJILEIXINGLAIXUANYONGCAILIAO,BIRU,CHENGZAIRONGJISHIHAIYUANXINGHENQIANGDECAILIAOHUOZAIHENCHAOSHIDEHUANJINGXIA,JIUYAOJINKENENGFANGZHICAIYONGTIEZHIYALISHEBEI;

      QISAN,YAOJIEHEXIANGGUANBIAOZHUNYAOQIULAIXUANQUCAILIAO,ZHUZHONGCAILIAODEGOUZAO,BUNENGCAIYONGJINGJIANFENGXIDADECAILIAO,FANGZHICHANSHENGSHENTOUYINQIDEFUSHI。

      TONGCHANGZHUYAOXUANZETANGANGZUOWEISHENGCHANYALIRONGQIDEWULIAO,YENENGGOUCAIYONGTONGHETAIZUOWEIZHUZAOYUANLIAO。


      4.研制新型材料

万人棋牌      ZAISHIYONGYUFAZHANYALIRONGQISHI,QIGONGYISHIZHONGZAIJINBU,XINXINGCAILIAOYEFENFENYONGXIANYULIYONG。DANGQIAN,GEZHONGYALIRONGQISUOCAIYONGDEZHUYAOYUANLIAOTONGCHANGSHIJINSHUCAILIAOHUOSHIHEJINWULIAO,FUHEWULIAOJIUSHIYONGZAIXIAOJIEGOUYUTESHUBUJIANZHONG。YINWEIDADUOSHUJINSHUCAILIAOYUHEJINCAILIAOKANGSUANJIANXINGNENGDOUHENCHA,HOUQIGONGZUOZHONG,XINXINGCAILIAODEYANZHIYUSHIYINGYAOYINQIGAODUGUANZHU。


      5.加强电化学防范

万人棋牌      DIANHUAXUEFANGFANSHIFANGZHIYALIRONGQIJINSHUWAIBIAOCHUXIANFUSHIFANYING,SHIZHIBIANCHENGYINJI,JINERJINXINGFANGHU。DANGQIAN,ZHUYAOSHEJILIANGZHONGFANGFA:①SHIJIADIANLIUYINJIFANGHUFA,JIWAIBUJIARUZHILIUDIANYUAN,BIANHUAJINSHUCAILIAOSHIYANGJISHIDEDIANZIGAIBIANFANGXIANG,LINGYALIRONGQIBIANCHENGYINJI,FANGZHIQISHOUDAOFUSHI,YAOQIUZHANGQIGONGDIAN。②XISHENGYANGJIFANGHUFA,ZAIYALIRONGQINEIGUDINGFANGRUBIJINSHUWAIMIANGENGYISHOUDAOYANGHUDEHUODONGWULIAO,BIRUXIN、LVDENGWUZHI,SHIZHIQUDAIYALIRONGQIJINSHUWAIBIAOBIANCHENGYUANDIANCHIYANGJI。SHIJIADIANLIUYINJIFANGHUFANENGGOUSUISHIDIAOJIEDIANLIUDAXIAO,BIANYUJIEHESHIJIQINGKUANGSHEJIDIANLIUGAODI。


      ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,YALIRONGQICHUXIANFUSHIQINGKUANGBINGBUSHIYIZHONGYUANYINYINQIDE,QISHENGCHENGHUANJIEYUYANSHENGJIEGUODOUYOUQUBIE,ZAIYANJIUYALIRONGQIDESUNHUAISHI,NENGGOUYISUNHUAIBUWEIDETEDIAN、JINXIANG、CAIZHIDENGJIANCHAFANGSHIWEIZHU,YIJUYEJIN、POHUAIDENGGUANNIAN,FENXIQIXINGCHENGDEZHUYIN。YALIRONGQIDEFUHUAIQINGKUANGGUANXIZHEQIJIEGOUDEANQUANXING,XUYAOSHENRUTANJIU。JINXIENIAN,FUSHIWENTIYISHOUDAOGEXINGGEYEDEGUANGFANGUANZHU,ZHENGFUYUGONGYELINGYUMEINIANHAOFEIJUZIHERENLIZHICHIFANGFUGONGZUO,YIFANGZHICHUXIANJUDASUNSHI,DANJUTIXIAOGUOBINGBUSHIFEICHANGKEGUAN,CHENGGUOYIJIUYOUXIAN,YIHOUDEXIANGGUANYANJIUYIJIUYOUJIAODADEJINBUKONGJIAN,YIQITICHUXINGZHIYOUXIAODEFANGFANCELVE。


来源:网络

MIANZESHENGMING:BENWENLAIYUANYUWANGLUO,ZHUANZAIDEMUDEZAIYUCHUANDIFENXIANGGENGDUOXINXI,BINGBUYIWEIZHEZANTONGQIGUANDIANHUOZHENGSHIQIZHENSHIXING,YEBUGOUCHENGQITAJIANYI,JINTIGONGJIAOLIUPINGTAI,BUWEIQIBANQUANFUZE。RUSHEJIQINQUAN,QINGLIANXIWOMENJISHIXIUGAIHUOSHANCHU。


文本标签:腐蚀,防护,啄木鸟管道检测

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